The Development of a Culturally Responsive Scale to Measure Abuse by In-laws Among South Asian Immigrants: Considerations and Implications (Research Note)


  • Abha Rai Loyola University Chicago
  • Kristen E. Ravi The Univesity of Tennessee-Knoxville
  • Irene Elizabeth Syriac New York University
  • Rachel Voth Schrag The University of Texas at Arlington



culturally responsive, domestic violence, in-laws abuse, South Asians, immigrants


South Asian immigrants are one of the fastest growing immigrant groups in the U.S. Similar to other immigrant groups, domestic violence has become a cause of growing concern among this community. Owing to the multifaceted cultural nuances among South Asians, domestic violence manifests in distinctive ways, including abuse by in-laws. To accurately understand the ways in which domestic violence is experienced in this community, it is essential to utilize culturally responsive instruments. Therefore, a culturally responsive instrument called SMILE (Scale to Measure In-Laws Exploitation & abuse) was developed to examine the items that were perceived to constitute in-laws abuse by South Asian men and women across the United States.  Implications for social work research, practice and policy are discussed, nationally and globally.

Author Biographies

Abha Rai, Loyola University Chicago

Assistant Professor

Kristen E. Ravi, The Univesity of Tennessee-Knoxville

Assistant Professor

Rachel Voth Schrag, The University of Texas at Arlington

Assistant Professor


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